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For the past 60 years, the image shown below has puzzled historians. Created by Italian artist Xavier della Gatta in 1782, the painting vividly and accurately depicts the 1777 Battle of Paoli, part of the Philadelphia Campaign of the American Revolutionary War. Della Gatta, however, never set foot in America. Why did Xavier della Gatta choose to paint this battle and how was he able to depict it so accurately? Careful detective work has revealed answers in the life of Richard St. George, who fought with the British Army at the battle. St. George also provided the eyewitness details for della Gatta's Battle of Germantown painting.

Richard St. George remembered Paoli as a “nocturnal bloody scene” and helped create the detailed painting of the battle. The painting, which is part of the Museum's collection and was on display in the Museum's special exhibition Cost of Revolution: The Life and Death of an Irish Soldier, merges different moments from the battle into one action-packed view. It provides a rare, eyewitness glimpse into the violence of the Revolutionary War.

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1. British Light Dragoons

These four British soldiers on horseback are members of the 16th Light Dragoons. They used their long steel sabers to devastating effect at Paoli. The dragoon on the right is raising his saber to cut down a Pennsylvania soldier.

2. Lieutenant Martin Hunter

Martin Hunter, St. George’s friend, is wrapping his wounded hand with a bandage. In his memoir, Hunter recalled the close combat at Paoli: “I received a shot in my right hand soon after we entered the camp. I saw the fellow present at me, and was running up to him when he fired. He was immediately put to death.”

3. Ferguson’s Riflemen

Wearing green coats and carrying their breechloading rifles with 25-inch long bayonets, a group of Captain Patrick Ferguson’s riflemen helped to lead the attack at Paoli.

4. Captain William Wolfe

Captain William Wolfe, the Irish commander of the 40th Regiment’s light company, died leading his troops at Paoli. He was remembered as “a most brave and attentive officer.”

5. Pennsylvania Troops

Brigadier General Anthony Wayne’s troops scrambled to defend their camp at Paoli. The Pennsylvanians fired their muskets, which made it easier for the British to find and attack them in the dark. Wayne withdrew his troops in a fighting retreat to save them from total defeat. The Battle of Paoli became known as the “Paoli Massacre” or “Wayne’s Affair.”

6. Brush Huts

Instead of tents, Wayne’s troops constructed brush huts, also called “wigwams” or “booths,“ in their camp along a woodline (which still exists today, right). These huts provided some protection from the wind and rain. Both Washington’s and Howe’s armies built temporary brush hut camps during the Philadelphia Campaign when baggage wagons carrying tents were not close by.

7. Artist’s Signature

Italian artist Xavier della Gatta signed and dated his painting in the bottom right corner: “Xav d Gatta 1782.” Richard St. George traveled to Italy after his wartime service and provided Xavier della Gatta with the eyewitness testimony needed to create this painting. Della Gatta also painted the Battle of Germantown.

Learn more about Xavier della Gatta's Battle of Paoli painting in our collection as well as his Battle of Germantown painting that he produced with the help of Richard St. George. Explore more about Richard St. George and his work with Italian artist Xavier della Gatta that was featured in the Museum's special exhibition Cost of Revolution: The Life and Death of an Irish Soldier.

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Image 091020 3x2 Battle Paoli Xavier Della Gatta Cost Revolution
Museum of the American Revolution 

Battle of Paoli

This artwork by Italian painter Xavier della Gatta depicts a scene from the Battle of Paoli on September 21, 1777.
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Germantown Numbers

Breaking Down Xavier della Gatta's Battle of Germantown Painting

British Army officer Richard St. George worked with Italian artist Xavier della Gatta to create the painting of the Battle of Germantown.
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Valley Forge Numbered 0

Breaking Down Trego's March to Valley Forge Painting

Painted by Philadelphia artist William B. T. Trego in 1883, The March to Valley Forge, December 19, 1777 is one of the most iconic paintings of the Revolutionary War.
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